Glossary

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There are currently 90 names in this directory
Academic Health Science Networks (AHSNs)
AHSNs are bodies which connect the NHS, Academic Organisations, local authorities, third sector organisations and industry to spread innovations and improve healthcare.

Accident and Emergency (A&E)
Accident and Emergency, otherwise known as the ED (Emergency Department) or Casualty. The first place a patient goes in secondary care when they need immediate treatment for an accident or an emergency

Allied Health Professionals (AHPs)
These are people who have health care jobs which are not in nursing, medicine or pharmacy. Allied Health Professionals include occupational therapists (OTs), podiatrists, dietitians, physiotherapists and radiographers.

Audit
A way to find out if current treatment is in line with desired standards.

Bespoke treatment
Part of stratified care, the term bespoke treatment refers to when a patient is given a treatment that is matched to their specific condition.

Care Quality Commission (CQC)
The independent regulator of health and adult social care in England. It makes sure health and social care services provide people with safe, effective, compassionate, high-quality care and encourages care services to improve.

CCGs (Clinical Commissioning Groups)
NHS organisations set up to organise the delivery of NHS Services in England, organised geographically.

Centre of Excellence
A team, place or network that has the expertise to provide leadership and best examples in specific areas of healthcare.

Clinical champions
Health care professionals who help push forward new ideas into healthcare settings.

Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs)
These are NHS organisations set up to organise the delivery of NHS Services in England, organised geographically. They plan and decide whether or not a treatment should be used (commissioned) in hospital care and community and mental health services.

Clinical outcomes
Changes seen in a patient’s symptoms, which result from treatment.

Clinical pathways
A tool based on evidence-based practice and used by a multidisciplinary team caring for a specific group of patients with a predictable clinical course, when the different tasks (interventions) to be carried out by the professionals involved in the patient care are defined and sequenced.

Clinical Reference group (CRG)
Each National Programme of Care has several Clinical Reference Groups (CRGs) to provide clinical advice and leadership. These groups of clinicians, commissioners, public health experts, patients and carers use their specific knowledge and expertise to advise NHS England on the best ways that specialised services should be provided.

Clinical Research Network (CRN)
A network which coordinates and supports the delivery of research across the NHS in England, made up of 15 regional networks across the country.

Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC)
These are geographical networks which are made up of NHS clinicians and academic researchers, who work together to develop and evaluate new health services

Commissioning
Commissioning is the effective planning and delivery of healthcare to meet the needs of the population. Deciding whether or not a treatment should be used.

Commissioning Support Unit (CSU)
Organisation that provides support to clinical commissioning groups by providing business intelligence, health and clinical procurement services and other office administration functions.

Community Health Partnership (CHP)
Organisation that provides a service to NHS commissioners and local partners across England, with the aim of delivering savings, increasing service integration and driving best use of the primary and community healthcare estate. The CHP aims to get the best commercial deals for both patients and taxpayers and design and deliver award-winning buildings.

Community of Practice (CoP)
A group of people who share a common interest and work together to achieve a common goal. For example the JIGSAW-E project has a Community of Practice, which is made up of researchers, educators, health professionals, industry, patients and public who are all working together to improve arthritis care.

CoP (Community of Practice)
The group of interested parties in each country in the JIGSAW-E project. Includes researchers, educators, industry, musculoskeletal clinical leads, GPs, practice nurses, allied health professionals, patients and public.

Deliverables
A deliverable is a project management term, which describes the product or service that comes out of the project. A deliverable usually has a due date and is tangible, measurable and specific.

Department of Health
Government department that leads, shapes and funds health and care in England

Diagnosis
The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem, by a health care professional, by examination of the symptoms, patient and test results.

Dissemination
Dissemination refers to the act of spreading something, especially information, widely. In research, it refers to when researchers circulate the results of their research studies and trials. It differs from implementation as dissemination informs people of the research outcomes, whilst implementation actually puts the research findings into practice.

E-template
An electronic form used by a GP during a consultation with a patient.

E-training
A way of teaching that is offered online, using the internet, instead of face to face.

EIT-Health (European Institute of Innovation and Technology)
An EU initiative to improve healthy living and active ageing across Europe by bringing together universities and industry and providing funding for projects

Elective care
Planned care, such as a planned operation or treatment in hospital

Electronic Patient Record (EPR)
An electronic patient record is a secure digital version of a patient's healthcare records. They make information available instantly and securely to authorised users such as doctors, nurses and physios.

EMIS
This is a clinical computer system which is used by GPs, nurses and other health care professionals in Primary Care. It allows healthcare professionals to record, share and use vital information, so they can provide better, more efficient care. Also see: SystemOne

Evidence based practice
Healthcare professionals use current best evidence, along with their clinical expertise and patient values to help them make decisions on how best to treat a patient.

Footprint
Normally referred to when talking about STPs, a footprint is a geographical area

Health Education England (HEE)
Supports the delivery of excellent healthcare and health improvement to the patients and public of England by ensuring that the workforce of today and tomorrow has the right numbers, skills, values and behaviours, at the right time and in the right place.

Health Informatics
The use of IT (Information Technology) to deliver and manage health care.

Healthwatch
The independent consumer champion for NHS and social care services - representing the interests of patients and the public

Impact
A marked effect or influence.' Projects in the Impact Accelerator Unit have impact on real world healthcare practice. Universities measure the impact that their research has had in practice.

Impact Accelerator Unit
The Keele Impact Accelerator Unit moves evidence based practice into real world healthcare

Implementation
The process of putting the results of healthcare research into clinical practice.

Implementation Science
The study of how we establish proven, effective interventions (treatments) in everyday healthcare practice and how we enable people and organisations to change. Concentrates on the solutions for people

Improvement Science
Actually changing and improving healthcare using evidence based interventions, achieving widespread use of 'new, better ways' more quickly. Uses a specific Quality Improvement method to make something better than before.

Innovations
New or cutting edge improvements and developments in healthcare treatment

Interventions
In medicine, an intervention is a treatment which is usually undertaken to help treat or cure a condition. Research produces interventions which are based on evidence

INVOLVE
A UK-based organisation which supports public involvement in the NHS, public health and social care research. For more information www.invo.org.uk

JIGSAW-E
JIGSAW-E stands for 'Joint Implementation of osteoarthritis Guidelines across Western Europe' It is a Keele implementation project which aims to put into practice an ideal treatment package for osteoarthritis. The evidence for this was discovered in the Keele MOSAICS research study, which found that a model (ideal) osteoarthritis consultation, along with supported self management tools (the osteoarthritis guidebook) achieves better results for patients.

Knowledge Broker
A Knowledge Broker is a person who brings people together, builds relationships and shares ideas and evidence that help healthcare stakeholders to do their jobs better. They make sure that information and ideas flow easily and there is a two way exchange of information.

Knowledge Mobilisation
Taking knowledge into active use, primarily between research and real life practice. Moving or mobilising knowledge.

KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)
A Key Performance Indicator is a measurable value that demonstrates how effectively project is achieving its objectives. The Impact Accelerator Unit must demonstrate KPIs to evaluate their success at reaching targets.

Lay person
Someone who does not have a clinical or research background but is part of the team working towards a common goal. Often a patient or member of the public.

LINK group (Lay Involvement in Knowledge Mobilisation)
The LINK group is based at Keele and is made up of patients, carers and people with an interest in improving healthcare in the real world. Using their knowledge, experience, networks and connections, the group's aim is to provide a lay person's steer for the Impact Accelerator Unit to enable them to effectively and successfully implement innovations.

Long Term Conditions (LTC)
Chronic diseases for which there is currently no cure, and which are managed with drugs and other treatment, for example diabetes and arthritis

Making Every Contact Count (MECC)
An initiative where all contacts with individuals are used to promote a healthy lifestyle

Methodology
A system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity.

Metrics
Used to measure, compare and track the success of a project.

Model OA consultation
A new patient-focused consultation between a patient and their GP for osteoarthritis (OA). The model OA consultation is based on the core recommendations from the NICE osteoarthritis guidelines for primary care, for example providing written information and advice about exercise and weight loss.

MOSAICS
This was a Keele research study on Managing Osteoarthritis in Consultations which investigated a new way of supporting patients to self-manage their condition. It lead to the JIGSAW-E implementation project

Multi Disciplinary Team (MDT)
A group of professionals from different professional backgrounds who work together to care for a patient (e.g. nurses, doctors, physios, pharmacists).

Musculoskeletal (MSK)
Involving the body's joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons and structures that support limbs, the neck and the back

National Programmes of Care (NPoC)
Specialised services commissioned by NHS England have been grouped into six National Programmes of Care (NPoC). Internal medicine, cancer, mental health, women and children, trauma and blood and infection.

NICE (National Institute of Health Care and Excellence)
NICE is an organisation which provides evidence based guidance and advice to improve health and social care across the UK.

Non-pharmacological
Treatment that does not involve the use of drugs and medicines.

OA (Osteoarthritis)
The most common form of joint disease, which causes joint pain and stiffness. Symptomatic OA is when a patient shows medical symptom or signs of the condition.

OA Guidebook
Keele University has developed an Osteoarthritis (OA) Guidebook for patients and healthcare professionals, which includes patient experiences and evidence-based information and advice.

Outputs
A specific technology, product, service, method, design, concept or approach produced in a project to be put into practice

Patient champions
Patients who help push forward new ideas into healthcare settings. The patient will usually have experience of the condition for which they are trying to promote a treatment.

Patient pathway
This is the route that a patient will take from their first contact with an NHS member of staff (usually their GP), through referral, to the completion of their treatment. It also covers the period from entry into a hospital or a Treatment Centre, until the patient leaves

PPGs (Patient Participation Groups)
Every GP practice in England is required to have a PPG group. Patient Participation Groups have a key role to play as they help ensure that patients and carers can influence their local care services.

PPIE (Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement)
Involvement - actively involving patients, families, carers and members of the public to advice and shape research and healthcare. Engagement – connecting with people about health research and sharing information

Primary Care
Health services providing first point of contact care for patients (e.g. general practices, district nursing, and community-based health services)

Prognosis
The likely course of a medical condition in the future

Public Health England
Public Health England provides national leadership and expert services to support public health, and also works with local government and the NHS to respond to emergencies

Qualitative data
Information used to understand underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into problems or helps to develop new ideas about things. Can include things people say or their behaviours.

Quality Indicators
specific and measurable elements of healthcare practice that can be used to assess the quality of care. They are used to assess care quality according to defined standards of care (see Quality Standards)

Quality Standards
These are statements which help to improve quality within a particular area of care, taken from the best available evidence.

Quantitative data
Information that is measured or counted using numbers

Red flags
A red flag in medicine is a sign or symptom in a patient of a serious condition that indicates an urgent treatment or a severe condition

Risk Factors
Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease.

Secondary care
Secondary care, which is sometimes referred to as 'hospital and community care', can either be planned (elective) care such as a cataract operation, or urgent and emergency care such as treatment for a broken bone

Self-management
When the patient uses different methods to care for themselves and control their own symptoms, using advice from medical professionals.

Silos
A self enclosed group of like-minded individuals. When implementing innovations or sharing knowledge, we aim to break down silos, share information and mobilise knowledge.

SMEs - (Small / Medium Enterprises)
Organisations which usually employ fewer than 250 people.

Social Prescribing
Social prescribing is a way of linking patients with sources of support within the community. It provides non-medial options that can operate alongside existing treatments to improve health and well being.

Stakeholder
A person or organisation with an interest or concern in something.

Strategic Clinical Networks (SCN)
SCNs bring together those who use, provide and commission an NHS service to make improvements in outcomes for complex patient pathways

Stream of Funding
A source of money set aside for a certain purpose or project.

Sustainability and Transformation Partnerships (STPs)
Partnerships between local councils and the NHS to improve health and care according to the need of the whole population in the area

SystemOne
SystemOne is a clinical computer system which is used by GPs, nurses and other AHPs in Primary Care. Also see: EMIS Web

Tertiary Care
Tertiary care refers to highly specialised treatment such as neurosurgery, transplants and secure forensic mental health services.

Train the Trainers model
A way of teaching people about a certain topic. Once they have been trained they will then go on to teach other people.

Vanguards
50 groups have been created by NHS England to develop new care models and potentially redesign the health and care system. "A group of people leading the way in new developments or ideas."

Work Packages
Pieces of work to achieve the aims of the project.